What types of leadership are found within Brave New World?And are there a few references to look up. Any quotes would be helpful.

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mwestwood eNotes educator| Certified Educator

In Aldous Huxley's dysutopian novel, Brave New World, the world is strictly stratified with ten World Controllers, among whom is Mustapha Mond.  While he powerful enough that he can take the liberty of reading the Bible, Shakespeare, and other forbidden works, everyone else in the New World is closely watched.  Through fetal conditioning in the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre, for instance, people are designed for a lifetime as Alphas, Betas, Deltas, and Episolons.  By this conditioning as well as hypnopaediac conditioning, equality of physiology and mind is established. This makes, as Mond tells John, the world "stable."

Besides the World Controllers, only the Alphas are allowed any role in leadership; and, even the Alphas's leadership is limited as free thought is forbidden. In his conversation in Chapter 16 with John the Savage, Mond explains that "Every change is a menace to stability" and why the Alphas are controlled.  He explains an experiment conducted on the island of Cyprus with twenty-two thousand Alphas:

All agricultural and industrial equipment was handed over to them and they were left to manage their own affairs.  The result exactly fulfilled all the theoretical predictions.  The land wasn't properly worked, there were strikes in all the factories; the laws were set at naught, orders disobeyed; all the people detailed for a spell of low-grade work were perpetually intriguing for high-grade jobs, and all the people with high-grade jobs were counter-intriguing at all costs to stay where they were.  Within six years they were having a first-class civil war....that was the end of the only society of Alphas....

It is in secret that Helmholtz writes poetry and discusses with Bernard Max.  For his part, however, Helmholtz does forge an understanding with Mond who envies his banishment outside the boundaries of conformity.

As a commentary on the New World, Huxley's name of Mustapha is an epithet of the name Muhammad, meaning chosen one; his surname Mond is a derivative of the French word, monde, meaning world.  So, in spite of all the ingeniousness designing, the New World has its problems as human desires and urges such as the need for motherhood, meaningful friendships, real love surface and must be controlled artificially with the drug soma pseudo-religious ceremonies named "Solidarity Services."

Regarding references, you may wish to examine Huxley's own sequel, Brave New World Revisited in which he offers explanations himself.

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Brave New World

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