What types and forms of artwork were produced during the Ancient Greece, the Archaic-Classical time period, that provide information about the clothing?
The Archaic-Classical period of ancient Greece consists on two separate time lines starting with the Archaic around the year 750 to yr 500 BC and followed by the Classical period which begins right at 500 BC and ends in 336 BC. This latter period is sometimes referred to as the "Ancient Greek Renaissance" because it is a time when arts and politics reached high philosophical successes.
During this time, also known as the "first democracy", and the Age of Pericles, sculptors found a way to manipulate bronze. These would be some of the earliest examples of freestanding statuary, which would certainly depict clothing (and lack thereof) since it is like any modern form where a model is sculpted as is.
After this follows the "Golden Age". This is when you see the famous vases that have been extracted by archaeologists from time to time. These vases not only describe typical Greek scenes of everyday life, but they also tells stories, and express the common psyche of the population. This is done through the black and red figure techniques. This is basically the painting's focal character featured brightly with a very dark black or red background. The artist known as the Berlin Painter is one of the leading artists of this time. You will find that these vases all depict a model either naked or wearing clothing of the time period.
Turmoil begins to affect Greece toward the late 300's with conflicts with war, Spartans, and the likes, but it is also the era of Praxiteles who is one of the foremost and most respected freestanding artists. It is he and his followers who brought the beautiful almost life like effigies of Aphrodite of Cnidos. This statue, for example, shows a naked Aphrodite holding a wardrobe more than likely used by females at this time.
Hence, this period is the most productive in terms of art that depicts the typical clothing of that era.