Bacteria are divided into three groups depending on their shape or morphology. Spherical bacteria are called cocci. Rod shaped bacteria are called bacilli and spiral bacteria are called spirochetes.
Cocci in clusters are called staphylococci, these cause "staph" infections. Cocci in chains are called streptococci. One type of these causes "strep throat". Bacteria in pairs are called diplococci, one type of which causes gonorrhea.
Some bacteria need oxygen to live. These are referred to as aerobic or aerobes. Other bacteria can live without oxygen, called anaerobic. Still others can live with or without oxygen and are called facultative.