The language of early Indus valley society (Harappan society) has never been deciphered, and many of the artifacts are under water; for that reason little is known about their culture. From the scant evidence available, it appears that the society was quite wealthy with evident class distinction. The wealthy lived in large two and three story homes with twelve or more rooms. They also had large brick ovens for cooking and private wells. Additionally, the larger homes had showers and flush toilets that emptied into a central sewage system. The presence of such amenities made early Indus civilization one of the wealthiest in the ancient world.
Harappa and Mohenjodaro (present-day Pakistan), the two cities excavated first, appear to have functioned as twin capitals of this civilization.
Harappa and Mohenjodaro show a surprising similarity despite being 350 miles apart. Both cities consist of an acropolis and a lower city, each fortified separately. The acropolis contains large assembly halls, granaries, and edifices for religious purposes. It was thus the administrative and religious nerve center of the cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. Some of the cities had large public baths built on highly scientific lines. These baths were generally used for religious bathing.
The lower cities are divided into rectangles by broad streets. All the houses were connected directly to the well-planned drainage system of covered drains and soak pits. The grid layout of the cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, along with their advanced drainage system, has made them the first truly planned cities in the world. Each house had a courtyard, private wells, and bathrooms and was built with well-baked standardized bricks.
People of the Harappan Culture appear to have known the use of the potter's wheel. Archaeological excavations in the various cities have revealed a hoard of pottery and potshards, which are decorated with geometric patterns. These items reflect the aesthetic sense of this ancient culture. These people were fond of ornamentation as proved by a large number of necklaces, anklets, rings, earrings, amulets, beads, and nose studs that have been recovered from various sites.