What type of government did Macedonia and Rome have? Were they the same?
The governments of ancient Rome and ancient Macedonia were not the same. Today, we pattern our government after that of the Roman Republic. We do not pattern our government after that of Macedonia. Once Rome became an empire, its government was more similar to that of Macedonia, but it was still not the same.
Ancient Macedonia, as it was under King Phillip II, was simply a monarchy. The king held power that was almost absolute. In a sense, it was more of a tribal society writ large where there was no central bureaucracy and not much organization. Instead, there was the king and whatever informal systems he built up for keeping control, but it was not a modern government as we think of these things.
By contrast, Rome was much more modern in its government, particularly under the Republic. During the Republic, Rome had separate legislative and executive branches. It had a bicameral legislature with an aristocratic Senate and a popularly elected Assembly. There were written laws and citizens had certain recognized rights. When Rome became an empire, the different branches of government disappeared, but there was still a system of laws and of rights that were possessed by the citizens.
In other words, Macedonia and Rome had different types of government with Rome having a much more organized and modern government than Macedonia did.