Lord of the Flies is considered to be a fictional allegory. An allegory is a work of literature that functions entirely as a symbol for some other idea. The characters, setting, and other details in the work are all symbols that function together to develop another idea.
Critics have suggested that Lord of the Flies may be read as an allegory in political, social, religious, and psychological terms. From the political perspective, the novel represents the conflicts between countries and militaries during the second world war. On a social level, the novel represents societal and governmental hierachies and the power struggles that are inherent in such hierarchies. From a religious perspective, the novel may be an allegory for the Garden of Eden. Finally, from a psychological perspective, the novel represents the overall human struggle with inherent evil and desire.