There are different types of archetypes that you can consider. A stereotype, such as the dumb jock or the popular girl, is a kind of archetype. You see these in reality shows and movies quite a lot. There are also mythic archetypes: the wicked witch, the wise old man, the hero (or heroine), the fool, etc.
A psychologist named Carl Jung created a list of archetypes having to do with personality. The most fascinating of these is the Shadow, the part of a person which they would rather hide, but which exists just the same. Bruce Wayne's Shadow would be Batman, for instance. The other Jungian archetypes are the Self, the Anima and Animus, and the Persona. You can read their definitions by following the link below.
An example of archetypes in literature would be Doctor Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. In the person we identify two distant personalities which render the reader with opposite sides of the spectrum. Dr. Jekyll is the good Doctor. He also has a subconscious vicious and demonic side that he is not aware exists.
There are other archetypes such as the hero. The hero type is represented in religion, epic poems, and serves as the prototype of a perfect man or example of what a perfect person should be. He is usually greater than life. Beowulf fits the description.
The bad boy archetype is sometimes cast as a hero or a bad guy. Heathcliff in "Wuthering Heights" can be identified both ways. Another example is Dallas from the book "The Outsiders."
People types in literature are basically characters used in the story to portray different roles:
The perfectionist could be identified as the story teller in Edgar Allen Poe's "The Tell Tale Heart."
The caregiver could be someone like "Jane Eyre."
The performer is represented by Blanche in a Street Car named Desire."
The tragic romantic could be Isabella in "Wuthering Heights." Another good example is Mattie Silver in “Ethan Frome.”
The boss is represented by Danforth in "The Crucible."
The mediator would be the role of Reverend Hale in "The Crucible."
These are just some of the examples of characters used in literature. I hope these will enable you to identify some from the novel or text that you have available.