What are the two types of chromosomes? And who has which?

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gsenviro's profile pic

gsenviro | College Teacher | (Level 1) Educator Emeritus

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Chromosomes carry most of the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) of an organism in a packaged form. Since DNA is the genetic material used for the development and functioning of any life form, chromosomes carry the genetic information in an organism and are also transferred from parents to offsprings. 

In human beings, there are two types of chromosomes: autosomes and allosomes (also known as sex chromosomes). There are 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of allosomes in our genome (and thus in our cells), resulting in a total of 46 chromosomes. The autosome pairs are labeled 1-22 depending on their sizes in base pairs, while the allosomes are labeled by letters X and Y. 

A female contains two X chromosomes in the allosome pair, while a male human being has X and Y chromosomes in the allosome pair. The X chromosome is present in ovum, while either X or Y chromosomes can be present in the sperm. The female allosome is represented as XX, while the male allosome is XY. 

Male and female bodies contain the same 22 pairs of autosomes.

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eli468's profile pic

eli468 | Student, Undergraduate | (Level 1) Valedictorian

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The two main types of chromosomes in humans are the X and Y chromosomes. The X chromosome is much larger than the Y chromosome. Females carry the X chromosome and males carry the Y. The Y chromosome determines the sex of a baby during fertilization. This occurs only with either the presence or absence of the Y chromosome. If a Y chromosome is present, the chromosome from a male, then the baby will develop as a male. If the Y chromosome is absent then the embryo will become a female. 

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