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1) We would have far fewer natural resources available for us to enjoy or use today. Teddy Roosevelt and John Muir were way ahead of their time with conservationism, and I thank Mr. Roosevelt every summer when I venture into the National Park System. That's what you call foresight.
2) Civil rights for African-Americans and women's suffrage would have taken longer to achieve if there was no Progressive movement to lay the groundwork in those struggles.
I think that we would have seen big business become even more corrupt. The role of government in regulating big business was a result of the Progressive movement. I also think that the Progressive movement encouraged the involvement of all in the process of governing through getting people involved in voting and standing up for their "causes".
Personally, I do not think things would be much different. The things that happened during the Progressive Era would have happened anyway, just not all at once.
However, to go along with your question, let me look at two things that might have been different.
First, I will say that government would have continued to be much more corrupt if there had not been a Progressive Era. Senators would not be elected by the people and would still be able to be "owned" by big businesses, for example. Big city machines would still exist.
Second, there would be much less organized crime. If there had been no Progressives, there would have been no Prohibition. With no Prohibition, the Mafia would not have gotten rich from bootlegging -- no Al Capone, no people like that.
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