What are two limits placed upon the powers of the United States Supreme Court?

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As part of the U.S. Constitution's system of checks and balances, the powers of the Supreme Court of the United States are balanced by corresponding auditing authority of the other two branches of government: the legislative and the executive.

The legislative branch, represented by Congress, may impeach and remove justices of the Supreme Court for bad behavior. It can further act to limit the power of the Supreme Court by increasing its size, allowing more justices to be appointed. Finally, Congress has the "power of the purse strings" and allocates funding to the judiciary.

The executive branch, represented by the President, has the exclusive authority to appoint justices to the Supreme Court, thereby limiting its power by influencing its complexion and makeup.

Finally, the court is unable to issue advisory rulings, in contrast to constitutional tribunals in other countries such as France. The U.S. Constitution limits the court to hearing "controversies" and "cases." In the early republic, when George Washington requested an advisory opinion from the court, John Jay famously refused, citing the court's constitutional limitations.

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There are a number of limitations that have been placed on the power of the Supreme Court by the Constitution.

First, the members of the Supreme Court are liable to impeachement.  They are allowed to continue in office during "good behavior," which means that Congress can impeach them.

Second, Congress has the power to set the jurisdiction of the Court (at least in issues of statutary law).  In other words, Congress can tell the Court to some extent what sorts of cases it may and may not hear.

The most important limitation on the power of the Court is one that is not explicitly stated in the Constitution.  That is the fact that the Court has no means of executing its decisions.  It has no police force that it can send out to force people to obey.  It has to rely on the executive branch to enforce decisions it has made.

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