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The Egyptian civilization is one of the most renowned in history, primarily because of the many things which it created, invented, or perfected.
In the intellectual areas, the Egyptians created a calendar, developed a written language (known now as hieroglyphics), and codified a numerical system which included fractions. These inventions were obviously necessary and beneficial to keep records and conduct business, among other things.
In terms of things which have proved to be a benefit to society, the Egyptians developed a judicial system in which people could come to make complaint against their appointed officials. They also invented papyrus, a kind of paper made from the papyrus plants which grew along the Nile, and flat roofs. These roofs were beneficial for homeowners because they were able to sleep outside on their roofs at night. Irrigation systems connected to the Nile enabled farmers to prosper and have more leisure time to pursue other activities. Embalming is another significant achievement by the Egyptians, and many other medical advancements are attributed to the Egyptians.
Perhaps the most impressive legacy of the Egyptian culture (at least visually) are the obelisks, Pyramids, and temples, many of which are still standing today.
The Ancient Egyptians built some of the most-awe inspiring structures the world has ever seen, such as the Pyramids of Giza.
Egyptian obelisks can be found all over the world, and the famous Pyramids are among the most magnificent man-made structures in existence. The ornate temples, or at least parts of them, can still be seen today.
In general terms, these Egyptian accomplishments are things we take for granted as simply being part of our common life experiences; we rarely stop to consider, for example, how paper came to be. We simply use it. The same is true for a calendar or fractions, of course. Our lack of reflection on these things, however, does not make them any less remarkable.
For more information on this advanced civilization, see the excellent eNotes site as well as the others I linked for you below.
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