What are the theme, climax, and resolution in Huckleberry Finn?

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There are several questions being asked in this post, so I'll stick to looking at some themes of this novel.

An obvious theme(s) is the focus on race, racism, slavery, freedom. Jim is a slave, and he is running away in order to obtain freedom. He is not in his fight for freedom alone, because Huck Finn decides to help him. Huck too is looking for a freedom of sorts. He sees a lot of hypocrisy in society. He doesn't see how a society can be just and fair while allowing a person to be property as a slave. This struggle between legality and morality is another theme present in the book, and readers see Huck time and time again eventually follow his own morality over what society says is correct and legal.

And for a starter I would go to work and steal Jim out of slavery again; and if I could think up anything worse, I would do that, too; because as long as I was in, and in for good, I might as well go the whole hog.

Alongside the morality theme is a theme about education. Huck is not a well-educated person, yet he doesn't need lots of societal formal education in order to know and do what is right. While I personally think education is important, it has to be recognized that Twain is making a powerful statement about individual education through experience.

Another theme is family and/or friendship. Huck and Jim are not brothers, but their experiences with each other essentially create a familial bond between them which runs deeper than a standard friendship. They may fight and argue from time to time, but they are there for each other as well.

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The turning point of the novel occurs when Huck decides to write a letter to Miss Watson, telling her where Jim is. When he is finished, he rips up the letter and say, "OK, I'll go to hell." Huck, who has been bothered by the fact that he is helping Jim to escape, is now willing to help Jim even if it means going "to hell". The resolution is somewhat problematic. Tom Sawyer arrives at the Phelps and succeeds in convincing Huck to follow his romantic ideas about helping Jim to escape. After getting shot, Tom reveals that Miss Watson has already freed Jim and all the nonsense he and Huck went through in order to free Jim has been meaningless. Jim also reveals that Pap is death, so Huck's attempt to escape from Pap by travelling with Jim, has also been meaningless. Huck then decides to leave for "Injun Territory" because Aunt Sally wants to "civilize" him and he has had enough of that. So Huck leaves Jim to fend for himself and sets out for new adventures. Thus the themes of freedom and approaching Twain for this ending and others have said the ending brilliantly depicts what happened to America after the civil war. Huck,like the rest of America, thought the slave problem has ended and focused their attention on the West,forgetting about the problems of former slaves.

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