Truth and lies is a complicated theme in Ibsen's The Wild Duck. For instance, Gina Ekdal is living in a lie because she has never told Hjelmar Ekdal, her husband, that there may be some confusion as to Hedvig's paternity: Hedvig's father could be Hakon Werle or Hjelmar Ekdal. However, Gina is living in a wonderful truth because she adores her daughter and wholeheartedly loves her husband whom she protects with tender care. Gina in truth is happy and her family is happy, as separate individuals and as a unit.
Another example of truth and lies considers Gregars Werle. Gregars knows the truth about Hedvig's doubtful paternity and is determined that freedom and happiness require him to enlighten Hjelmar Ekdal as to the dubious nature of his paternity. Gregars is living in the truth. Yet, Gregars is living in a horrible lie because he believes everyone will glad to have the truth come out to dispel what he believes must be an oppressive burden of lies. His life of lies ruins the happiness of the family and causes Hedvig to take her life.