Expert Answers
mwestwood eNotes educator| Certified Educator

The first great theorist of dramatic art was Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) whose discussion of tragedy in Poetics has set the bar for what constitutes tragedy.

  • According to Aristotle, tragedy is the imitation in dramatic form of an action that is serious and complete, with incidents arousing pity and fear wherewith it effects a catharsis of such emotions (an emotional release) at the end. 
  • The best tragic plots involve a reversal of fortune or a discovery (change from ignorance to knowledge) or both.

Here is a description of the tragic protagonist:

  1. The tragic hero is a man/woman of noble stature.
  2. The tragic hero is good, though not perfect, and his/her fall results from his/her committing what Aristotle calls "an act of injustice" (hamartia) either through ignorance or from a conviction that some greater good will be served.  The protagonist is personally responsible for his/her downfall.
  3. The hero's downfall is tragic rather than merely pathetic. 
  4. Nevertheless, the hero's misfortune is not wholly deserved.  He/She is a person mainly admirable, and the fall, therefore, fills the audience with pity and fear (catharsis).
  5. The tragic fall is not pure loss.  He/She exits accepting his/her fate and acknowledging that it is to some degree just.
  6. Tragedy does not leave its audience in a state of depression.

It is important to note that there is a critical tradition that attributes the fall of the hero to a "tragic flaw"--some fault of character such as inordinate ambition, quickness to anger, a tendency to jealousy, or overweening pride.  This definition seems more appropriate to "Macbeth" as you have tagged your question as his inordinate ambition (along with Lady Macbeth's influence) is the driving force for his downfall.


kc4u | Student

The term 'tragedy' refers to a spectacle of human suffering leading to death and destruction, The sufferer/protagonist is a man belonging to high rank or station, neither all good nor all bad, but generally inclined to goodness, a man who, through some error, declines from prosperity to adversity, thereby arousing the emotions of pity & fear, and achieve a catharsis or purgation of these kindred emotions.

Aristotle in his famous treatise, Poetics, defines tragedy as 'the imitation(mimesis) of an action which is serious and having a certain magnitude'. Its purpose is to kindle the twin emotions of 'pity' and 'fear' and to effect a cathartic relief of these and such  like emotions. The tragic hero must therefore be a person whose inordinate suffering arouses the twin emotions to their optimum when excess of emotions are purged out and a pleasurable calm is achieved.

An error or 'hamartia' lies at the root of the protagonist's suffering leading to the catastrophe. The tragic plot should be complex having 'peripety' and 'anagnorisis': 'reversal of fortune' and 'self-discovery' or 'recognition of truth'.

atyourservice | Student

A tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes in its audience an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in the viewing.

maria-vivanco | Student

Tragedy is when a problem occurs that drastically affects the characters and the setting. It tends to be a moral travesty that alters the character's lives. Tragedy is human suffering and leads to destruction or death,