What ties societies  together in a way that justifies referring to them all as aspects of Western Civilization?

societies such as Egypt, Sumeria, Classical Green & Rome, and Medieval societies in Western Europe

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In many ways these are not all aspects of "western|" civilization. The ancient Mesopotamian civilizations of Sumeria, Akkad, Babylonia, Assyria, Persia, and related groups and areas are really Near of Middle Eastern. They did, however influence and interact with Graeco-Roman civilization, as well as serving as a conduit between India and the West. The same can also be said of Egypt. The west proper can [probably be described as modern Europe and the areas it colonized. However, Mesopotamia and Egypt were conquered by Alexander, formed part of the successor states, and then were conquered by the Roman Empire, leading to socio-political integration in the period from ca. 320 BC to 600 AD. After that period the histories diverge, with Islam defining the Near and Middle East and Christianity and the Latin language defining the west.

The term "western civilization" isn't really a descriptor of a specific culture phenomenon but really a way of organizing a historical curriculum.

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