What are the three periods of development of federalism, the influential leaders of the time, and the future of federalism?

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Before the 1930s, the relationship between the federal government and the states is often referred to as "dual federalism." During this period, which really dates from the early nineteenth century, the federal government was nothing like it is today. Rather, it was conceived as an essential coequal power with the states while maintaining at least theoretical supremacy. States, especially southern states, often vigorously protested federal assertions of power. The Civil War, and the Fourteenth Amendment that followed, did not substantively reverse this trend in the short term. Significant leaders during this period were such opponents of expansive power as Thomas Jefferson and John C. Calhoun (neither of whom were especially consistent on this issues) and proponents of an expanded role for the national government as Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall and longtime Whig politician Henry Clay.

The second important period of federalism is sometimes called that of "cooperative...

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