What are the three management activities in business?
When theories of management were being developed, managers received no formal training, and management functions were not fully understood and could not be standardized. However, complexities and changes in organizations led the theorists to define management functions in order to clarify management relations with employees and organization expectations of the manager.
According to Henri Fayol, the functions of management are Planning, Organizing, Leadership, Coordinating, and Controlling.
Planning is the ability or function of management in anticipating the future with regards to resources available, time, and the goals of the organization. Thus, management is expected to allocate the right amount and type of resources at the right time to ensure the goals of the organization are met.
Organizing is the function of management that involves mobilizing sufficient resources and managing the processes to ensure the operations of the organization run smoothly.
Leadership is a function of management that entails clear communication of tasks, instructions, and expectations to the employees in order to inform and guide their duties.
Coordinating is a function of management that involves creating synergies between all the functions and processes of the organization. Sufficient motivation and discipline should be maintained among all members to ensure that operations remain on course.
Controlling is a management function that entails the evaluation of the system to ensure positive outcomes are scaled up while problems are addressed adequately.
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Management activities of functions are classified by experts in many different way. It is difficult to make out from the question which particular scheme of classifying management activity needs to be covered in the answer. I am giving below one of the most popular way of classifying management functions. As per this schemes the the total work of management is grouped in following four functions.
- Planning (also called decision making)
- Organising (including staffing)
- Motivating (and leading)
Planning includes the job of determining what objectives to be achieve, how these objectives are to be achieve, and the specific action to be taken including details such as time and resource allocation for the actions to be taken.
Organization refer to the function of designing and establishing a structure of people and relationships between them to carry out the work as determined by planning function. It includes all the action necessary to fill or staff the position in the organization and keeping them filled with people with requires knowledge, skills and capabilities.
People in the organization work more or less effectively depending upon their motivation. The function of motivation and leadership is concerned with motivating individuals and groups to work towards fulfilment of planned objective in their roles as defined by organization structure.
It would be wonderful if all the people in an organization worked as planned and the results obtained are exactly as anticipated. Unfortunately, there are may uncertainties in the environment as well as human behavior that cause actual work and results to differ from the planned and expected to different degrees. Such deviation between plan and actual can also result from errors in decision making, ands some such errors are unavoidable. To ensure effective achievement of objectives in spite of these deviations it is necessary to monitor the actual work and performance against the pals and take mid course corrective action when so warranted. This is the management function of controlling.