When theories of management were being developed, managers received no formal training, and management functions were not fully understood and could not be standardized. However, complexities and changes in organizations led the theorists to define management functions in order to clarify management relations with employees and organization expectations of the manager.
According to Henri Fayol, the functions of management are Planning, Organizing, Leadership, Coordinating, and Controlling.
Planning is the ability or function of management in anticipating the future with regards to resources available, time, and the goals of the organization. Thus, management is expected to allocate the right amount and type of resources at the right time to ensure the goals of the organization are met.
Organizing is the function of management that involves mobilizing sufficient resources and managing the processes to ensure the operations of the organization run smoothly.
Leadership is a function of management that entails clear communication of tasks, instructions, and expectations to the employees in order to inform and guide their duties.
Coordinating is a function of management that involves creating synergies between all the functions and processes of the organization. Sufficient motivation and discipline should be maintained among all members to ensure that operations remain on course.
Controlling is a management function that entails the evaluation of the system to ensure positive outcomes are scaled up while problems are addressed adequately.