The first noteworthy literary element in The Lovely Bones is probably the point-of-view. First person limited or third person omniscient are two of the most common perspectives from which novels are written. It is somewhat rare for a novel to be told from a first person omniscient point-of-view. This is because it is rare that a character would be privy to all information. Sebold accomplishes this by using a narrator who is dead.
The other two elements I would encourage you to examine are flashback and foreshadowing. Essentially, this story is a mystery. It not told in chronological order. The techniques of foreshadowing and flashback are used to heighten the suspense and mystery. As a result, they keep the reader interested. This is certainly a book that once started, is very difficult to put down until it is finished.