There were two Boer Wars—the first took place in 1880–1881, and the second took place in 1899–1902. The background of the wars was that the Afrikaners, the descendants of Dutch settlers from the seventeenth century, were pushed northward out of the British Cape Colony to the interior of South Africa. There, they existed as farmers in the independent states of Transvaal and the Orange Free State. When the British tried to annex these states in the 1870s, the Boers, as the Dutch were also called, revolted. The Boers were also involved with fighting the black South Africans in Zululand and Bechuanaland. The first war ended in a Boer victory and continued independence, while the second ended in a British victory that helped provoke a sense of nationalism among the Boers. Black South Africans were involved in the wars in noncombat roles (and later in combat roles in the British forces). Therefore, the three groups involved were the Boers, black South Africans, and the British.