The Age of Exploration led to the European colonization of the Western Hemisphere. Rather than only trading with native peoples or plundering their settlements, European countries entered into a race to establish permanent settlements in the New World. Spain dominated South America, although Portugal colonized Brazil, and England, France, and Holland set up colonies in North America, as did Spain in places such as Mexico. In the end, however, England, and later the United States, became the dominant ruling power in North America.
Another result of the Age of Exploration was imperialism. Europeans were not content to simply trade with countries like India and China: they wanted to control the governments of these countries and install a military presence of their own. They did so, heedless of the negative impacts they could and did have on existing systems and cultures.
A third effect of the exploration was the establishment of a racial ideology that proclaimed white Europeans superior to other races and cultures. This offered Europeans an ideological justification for taking over other cultures: Europe was forcibly imposing, for the benefit of "inferior" peoples, their mode of civilization. Additionally, racial categorization also rationalized enslaving the races they deemed inferior.