In brief, Marxist theory approaches literature from an economic point of view and examines it for manifestations of the worker-owner dichotomy. This dichotomy can have manifold manifestations. For instance, Marxism had been applied to Goethe's Faust Part I and other things that may seem on the surface to have little to do with Marxism.
The collected stories in The Kind of Light That Shines on Texas touches on topics such as the identity of African American males; the forces shaping selfhood among African Americans; subjugation; matriarchy in African American homes; artists; drug users, drug dealers, violence; and identity shaping African American childhood experiences. In each of these topics, and others, class is present and Marxist ideology is a decided undercurrent.