there are at least 3 methods to analyze foreign policy of a country:
- decision making process (Snyder)
- pre-theory (Rosenau)
- Model (Allison)
There is also 7 step of making policy : policy windows - policy evaluation.
Which theory that can best use to analyze China's foreign policy? and why?
We will deal with foreign policy for other countries based on our own lens. In other words, we interpret another country's actions from our own set of biases and understandings. When it comes to China, this is also true. We often face prejudice and a lack of cultural understanding when it comes to China. There are a lot of misinterpretations. I am not suggesting that China is immune to criticism, but that we do need to consider cultural differences in any interpretation of foreign policy.
Former President George H. W. Bush (Sr.) spoke of his approach to Chinese foreign policy a little differently and less formally, to give you a different perspective. He was ambassador to China for several years, and understood both the people and the culture quite well.
He argued that realpolitik applied to China more than some other nations. He argued that they cannot be bullied, and that a pragmatic approach to dealing with them yielded better results. Truly, their recent foreign policy, with the exception of Taiwan, has been much less aggressive and much more geared towards their long term economic progress and stability.
I think the point of having different theories is that each one can be used to reveal different truths about the same issue. It is always important to gain as wide a range of views as possible, and therefore using different theories to help us to do so is a great tool to enable us to be aware of the complexities of issues such as the foreign policy of China. No one approach or theory is going to reveal all the information that we need to study such a vital issue.
I think you could use all of these, but my favorite is probably Rosenau. I think his typology does work well to shed light on China's actions.
For example, he predicts that a country will be least likely to compromise on issues of "status." I think that we can see this in China's recent behavior with regard to the Nobel Peace Prize or its behavior a few years ago with regard to the protests against the Olympic torch relay in Europe. The issue of the Dalai Lama shows this as well.
In all of these cases, China seems totally unwilling to compromise on issues that seem relatively irrelevant to us, but which are important to China for reasons of status.