What are the themes in Samuel Beckett's "Act Without Words I"?
The sense of this short piece is that Man’s relationship to his earthly existence, represented by the physical objects just out of the protagonist’s reach, leaves him with no choices, just the illusion of choices he could make. First the man is unable to leave his existence, as witnessed by his inability to exit the stage after being "thrown" into the world. When various objects (scissors, rope, water, etc.) are dangled before him just out of reach, the audience becomes aware of the futility of human effort, either to amend or to exit his own facticity; all the objects have dual significances -- improving our state, or ending our life. The key to his dilemma is that language an illusion—an illusion that we can communicate with the universe in words (see Wittgenstein “Of that which we cannot speak, we must remain silent”). The universe is not explainable with words, thus communication is not an option because there is no one to communicate with. Beckett spent his life “effing the ineffable,” by which he meant trying to convey the futility of Man’s condition without using speech. This play, on the surface a “dance-piece for one dancer,” is thematically an encapsulation of the meaninglessness and hopelessness of human existence. So the title is not merely a description of the piece, but also a short expression of humanity's state in the physical world.
Throughout the short play Act Without Words I, Beckett examines the themes of Man's existence and desire to live on more than a physical level. Beckett also explores the theme of resignation and disobedience. The nameless protagonist struggles against his environment to not only survive but to live a meaningful life. As was mentioned in the previous post, the desire for the man to communicate, along with his desire to escape, drives him to reject the essential elements needed to survive in the barren desert (water and shade). The powerful external force that throws him into the desert removes the scissors and tree once the protagonist attempts to commit suicide. The man comes to terms with his meaningless existence and rebels against the external force by refusing to drink water or sit in the shade. This act of rebellion signifies a "second birth" of Man as he becomes an individual by willfully ignoring his elemental needs. The resignation of the man represents individuality and acceptance of his current existence. The man disobeys the external force by refusing to merely exist and accepts his fate.