What are the themes, tone, and literary/poetic devices in "A Birthday", a poem by Christina Rossetti?
At a cursory reading, "A Birthday", by Christina Rossetti seems to be nothing more than the poet exultantly rejoicing over the return of her beloved. Yet many of the images employed, the balance of the natural world in the first stanza with the realm of artifact in the second, and even the title itself leads the reader to the almost inescapable conclusion that this poem - like many of Rossetti's poems - is devotional in nature.
In the first stanza the poet offers three similes in which she compares her glad heart to features of the natural world: these are a "singing bird...in a water'd shoot", an "apple tree", and a "rainbow shell". While the image of a singing bird is one that appears frequently in Romantic poetry, it also connotes with the biblical image of believers who are like a well-watered garden tended lovingly by God. While the image of an apple tree laden "with thickset fruit" indicates fruition and plenty, it also betokens the biblical tree of life, a tree which blesses those who lay hold of it. While "a rainbow shell/that paddles in a halcyon sea" signifies comfort and tranquility, it is also the biblical symbol par excellence (under the appearance of a rainbow) of creation restored by God. As the poet concludes the first stanza with
it is not difficult to see in these words an echo of the consummate love poem of the Old Testament, the Song of Songs, a poem transmuted by centuries of Christian eisegesis into a dialogue of the soul beloved of God.
In the second stanza, the poet creates a conceit, or elaborate metaphor, made up of images of the temple: