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Arms and the Man is subtitled an "Anti-Romantic Comedy" for a reason. Shaw is out to debunk romantic notions about warfare and love: hence, "arms" in the title is an allusion to The Aeneid and a pun on "arms" as both weapons of warfare and "weapons" of love.

Sergius and Raina have a false, romantic idea of love. They do not really love each other, but they do love the idea of being in love with each other. They are from the same social class and each is playing out a role about love that society has taught them is appropriate. Though Raina has doubts about her romantic ideals at the beginning of the play, idly wondering if they come from Byron and Pushkin rather than real life, she enters into the fairytale fantasy of being in love with her prince in shining armor. She wants to cast Sergius as a hero who will protect her. Sergius also wants to be the strong protector of Raina, but, in reality, he is attracted to her maid, Loucka. 

Bluntschli debunks Raina's romantic ideas about war and love. She has to get over these false beliefs in order to realize that it is the hardheaded and, as his name implies, blunt Bluntschli that she really loves. When she does, the play can have the happy ending that defines it as a comedy.