Your recent questions have been based on anatomy and physiology so there are two different possibilities for the term "potentiation".
The first definition of the term is in the medical and pharmaceutical sense. In medicine, a potentiator is a chemical or substance that increases the clinical effect of a drug. This boost to the action of the drug is called potentiation.
The second use is in neurology and is called long term potentiation. This means enhancing the neural signal transmission between the synapse of two neural cells. This is important to the effective function of learning and memory.