There are four spheres of Earth, one each corresponding to land (lithosphere), water (hydrosphere), air (atmosphere) and living things (biosphere). The lithosphere or land is the part where we live on and experiences a variety of climates. One can think of hot deserts of Africa to cold regions of Antarctica. In general, the temperature in these extreme regions can go as high as 58-60 degrees Celsius and can be as low as -40 degrees Celsius. We prefer to live in more moderate regions, where the temperature ranges between 10-40 degrees Celsius. The hydrosphere is more temperate due to water's ability to serve as a heatsink and its large quantity. Most of the world's bodies of water stay around 15-25 degrees celsius throughout the year. The exceptions are the frozen lakes or rivers in very cold regions. Our atmosphere is divided into troposphere (20 to -50 degrees celsius), stratosphere (0 to -50 degrees celsius), mesosphere (0 to -90 degrees celsius) and thermosphere (-90 to 100 degrees celsius). We encounter these four zones as we move up from earth's surface. The biosphere is more moderate and we prefer a hotter internal environment to survive, for example, our internal body temperature is around 37 degrees celsius.
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