What are the techniques used in analytical chemistry?
Analytical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with development and use of methods of chemical measurements. Chemical analysis is broadly classified in qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis is concerned with ascertaining the chemicals and compounds that make up a substance. The quantitative analysis determines the quantities of these components.
Chemical reactions: Subjecting the substance to different kinds of chemical reactions and observing and measuring the result of such procedures.
Spectroscopy: observing and measuring the characteristics of substances relating to emission or absorption of certain types of light.
Mass spectroscopy: This method is used to measure mass of different parts of a molecule of chemical compound to determine the structure of the molecules.
Electroanalysis: Observing the response of a substance electrical current or signals.
Microscopy: observing the substances visually under very high degree of magnification to study its micro-structure. This method can be used to study structure up to molecule level.
Separation: This is separating different constituents of a substance, before being analyzed further. This may involve some simple method separating soluble and insoluble materials by dissolving a sample in suitable solvent. Or it may use sophisticated methods like chromatography.
Analytical Chemistry includes a number of techniques for detecting and determining the composition of samples analyzed.
Chemical separation is the technique used to measure and determine the weight or the volume of a product. This process is essential, for example, when working with mixtures such as organic extracts.
Spectroscopy: determination of a substance on the base of absorption and emission of light, but also of other types of radiation.
Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectometry, hybrid technique used for volatile organic compounds.
Mass spectrometry used to determine molecular weight, composition of the substance, based on analysis of the molecule by ionization and observation of behavior in electric or magnetic field.
Techniques involving the volatilization of the substance to be analyzed for it's decomposing into free atoms and then measuring the rate of absorption or emission of the atoms concerned.