This is a speech made by Macduff to Malcolm in Act 4. Macduff has gone to England trying to convince Malcolm to return to Scotland and take the throne from Macbeth. Malcolm fears a trap and decides to test Macduff's motives by telling Macduff that he has no "kingly virtues." In this speech, Macduff is finally persuaded that all hope for Scotland is lost, that Malcolm is not worthy to be a king, and that Macbeth will continue his reign of terror. The techniques used in this short passage include the following: (1) characterization--we see Macduff's integrity in not wanting a corrupt ruler to be the king of Scotland as well as his misery and utter despair that Scotland will never be restored to its former greatness, (2) personification, as Macduff addresses his heart, declaring that all is lost, (3) the last line composed of words that have only one syllable--each word is stressed and Macduff's misery is emphasized, (4) enjambement--the first and second lines read as one, with no punctuation separating them. These two lines form the cause of Macduff's sorrow; the last line is the effect, (5) assonance--the long e sound in"these," "evils" and "repeat'st"; the short a sound in "hath" and "banished" and "Scotland"; the short e sound in "breast," "ends," and "here."