What are the symptoms and treatment of mesenteric ischemia?

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akasha124 eNotes educator| Certified Educator

As with anything else involving a medical condition, it's always best to consult a doctor if you think you may have any of these symptoms.

Symptoms of Mesenteric Ischemia can be vague and similar to symptoms like those that present in other conditions, which is why it's important to see your doctor so that s/he evaluate you and order tests. 

There are two kinds of Mesenteric Ischemia - chronic and acute.  Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia symptoms include: abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, gas, and constipation.  Acute Mesenteric Ischemia symptoms include: sharp, severe stomach pain and possibly nausea or vomiting.

For chronic Mesenteric Ischemia, the treatment may be an operation to remove the plaque that blocks your mesenteric artery.

Acute Mesenteric Ischemia treatment is usually an emergency procedure, since severe intestinal damage can occur rapidly in this situation. A doctor may first try medication to dissolve a clot if one is found soon enough.  If that doesn't work, or if the clot isn't found soon enough, you may need surgery.  You may also need follow up surgery to remove the damaged intestine, if it is damaged beyond repair. 

giorgiana1976 | Student

Chronic ischemia of mesenteric artery  in atherosclerotic etiology is frequently associated with abdominal pain after eating and occasionally diarrhea. Patients have finally fear of diet, due to associated pain.Acute ischemia is, however, a much more brutal and severe symptoms, with intense abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea and rapid deterioration of general state, the patient could get even shocked.

Vomiting has food nature to that in advanced cases be accompanied by blood and even feces. Symptoms depend very much on the artery involved in the process -inferior ischemic  mesenteric artery presents, for example, abdominal pain, but with few other symptoms conclusive.

The pain is very poorly located (this is a characteristic of visceral pain). It occurs in 75-85% of patients. Vomiting and nausea are also common, but diarrhea occurres only at some cases.Classic triad for entero-mesenteric ischemia with cardiac embolic is represented by abdominal pain, complete emptying of the bowel and chronic heart disease.

Acute mesenteric ischemia is a surgical emergency. In pre hospital it will be administered first aid measures to the patient: securing a venous access, installation of a Nasopharyngeal-gastric probe,therapy with  oxygen. Patients may require electrolyte rebalancing and nutritional. If thrombi is, however, timely found , it is tried it's  destruction with thrombolytic agents administered intravenously.

Chronic mesenteric ischemia can be solved by cutting and the excision of blocking area, by stringing the vascular heads  and reconnecting artery to aorta (re-introduction in vascular circuit).

Another procedure is to bypass blocked area, using a non allergizing plastic graft .

versatilekamini | Student

Mesenteric ischemia is a relatively rare disorder. Mesenteric ischemia is caused by decreased intestinal blood flow that can be caused by a number of mechanisms. Decreased intestinal blood flow results in ischemia and subsequent reperfusion damage at the cellular level that may progress to the development of mucosal injury, tissue necrosis, and metabolic acidosis.

Delays in diagnosis lead to increased mortality rates. Despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment, mortality rates continue to remain high.

Vascular surgery - Given the need for early diagnosis and treatment, the EP should obtain surgical consultation as soon as the diagnosis is considered. Interventional radiology - Angiography and adjunctive treatment Intensivist - Patients diagnosed with mesenteric ischemia are often hemodynamically unstable or have a high probability to progress to instability, so most patients require hospitalization in an intensive care unit.

Source: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/758674-treatment

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