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One of the central symbols of this story for me at least is the pump. This pump and its unattainability seems to be a symbol of the real lack of compassion and care of humanity in the face of suffering. Consider the following passage:
In the meanwhile, more television and movie teams arrived with spools of cable, tapes, film, videos, precision lenses, recorders, sound consoles, lights, reflecting screens, auxiliary motors, cartons of supplies, electricians, sound technicians, and cameramen: Azucena's face was beamed to millioins of screens around the world. And all the wile Rolf Carle kept pleading for a pump.
Note how a very short and simple sentence is placed after a long sentence which lists all the sophisticated technology that reporters bring with them. They are able to do incredible things thanks to technology, but somehow bringing a pump to save Azucena eludes them.
You might want to think as well about how Azucena herself might be a symbol and what she symbolises. This should start you off though - good luck!
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