What are symbols/ allusions in sonnet 30, and how do they connect to the overall meaning? Is there any diction that reveals a specific pattern?
The web link given below leads to a website offering a line-by-line discussion of William Shakespeare's Sonnet 30.
This website discusses, for example, how a number of the words used in the sonnet (in other words, the diction) indeed reveals a pattern. Many of the terms used in the sonnet are also used in legal discourse, including "waste," "expense," "grievance," "cancelled," "tell o'er," and "paid." The site goes on to explain, for example, that "tell o'er" is "an accounting phrase, referring to the reading over and summation of lists of figures. We still have tellers in banks, although the word is falling into disuse."
I hope this information helps as you continue to work out the answer to your question.