It's interesting to compare Dada, Surrealism, Futurism, and expressionism -- of these four movements away from realism, surrealism sought to rise above the real world(thus the prefix) into the dream world, a world with its own logic.
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Surrealism is a cultural and artistic movement that began in the early 1920s. Surrealism grew principally out of the earlier Dada movement, which produced works of anti-art that deliberately defied reason. In this sense, surrealism is considered revolutionary.
The basic idea of the art is to employ a style that is rooted in the subconscious mind. More particularly it juxtaposes things that do not necessarily go together. In short, what is created is a non sequitur.
The movement became big in Europe and was centered in Paris. This movement also was influenced by the work of Freud and Jung, as one can imagine. Eventually the surrealist movement spread to the rest of the world and influenced all sorts of artistic fields - from music to sculpture to painting to movies. Some of the best known surrealist are Dali and Muro.