The full title of the work is: The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstruous Regiment of Women. It was published in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation in 1558. The author was a fiery Scottish reformer - John Knox.
The basic thrust of the work can be seen in the title. John Knox wrote to argue against the rule of female sovereigns. In particular he wrote against the rule of Mary of Guise, Dowager Queen of Scotland and Queen Mary I of England.
More important, these women were Catholic, and Knox was a reformer. He argued from theological grounds that women should not rule. There are a few places in the New Testament where such ideas can be found such as 1 Timothy 2:12. Here is a quote, which shows the spirit of John Knox.
For who can denie but it repugneth to nature, that the blind shal be appointed to leade and conduct such as do see? That the weake, the sicke, and impotent persones shall norishe and kepe the hole and strong, and finallie, that the foolishe, madde and phrenetike shal gouerne the discrete, and giue counsel to such as be sober of mind? And such be al women, compared vnto man in bearing of authoritie. For their sight in ciuile regiment, is but blindnes: their strength, weaknes: their counsel, foolishenes: and judgement, phrenesie, if it be rightlie considered.
Later Knox's writings would cause some embarrassment for the Reformers, because Queen Elizabeth was a protestant that helped the cause of the Reformers.