The first device you might want to take note of that the story is written in the first person point of view, which allows the reader to see the events, characters, and setting through Jane's eyes. But there is an unusal aspect to this first person narration. Occasionally, Jane addresses the reader specifically. In fact, one of the most famous lines in literature is, "Reader, I married him," which begins the final chapter of the book. There are not too many authors of fiction who address the reader in this way. John Fowles was one example. The first person point of view gives Jane the ability to control what information the reader receives and when he or she receives the information. For example, the reader does not know that Rochester is married to a "madwoman in the attic" until Jane reveals this.
Another aspect of the novel you should notice is the use of Gothic elements, although Jane Eyre is not generally considered a Gothic novel. The settings are Gothic: castles, wild countryside, and mansions which have seen better days. Also, the character of Rochester has Gothic elements. He is a lone and mysterious figure.
Nature is important in Jane Eyre, to foreshadow and symbolize the events. Wild storms, moonlight, clouds, and trees play important parts in the story.
There are other devices, but this should be enough to get you off to a good start. Good luck to you.