Bronte uses first-person narration to raise sympathy for Jane Eyre and to allow us access to her thoughts and emotions. The first-person narration lends an immediacy that allows us to identify strongly with the character of Jane.
Bronte also uses the pathetic fallacy, a device in which the weather mirrors the protagonist's emotions or situation. For example, the rainy, dreary November day on which the novel opens, with the "lamentable" blasts of wind outdoors, reflects both Jane's unhappy home situation and the emotions that surge inside of her. If that were not enough, the book Jane reads is set in the Arctic, where "forlorn regions of dreary space,—that reservoir of frost and snow" mirror the icy coldness with which Jane is treated as an unwanted poor relation. Jane will also face literal storms as she races across the moor to escape Rochester.
Bronte also uses foils to set good characters against bad. Mr. Brocklehurst, an utter hypocrite who enjoys making the poor Lowood girls suffer mortifications, is a foil to the good-hearted Miss Temple, who loves and affirms Jane and the other students. Jane's cousins, Mary and Diana Rivers—kind, intelligent, and loving companions to Jane—are a foil to her evil and spoiled Reed relations, who treated her horribly as a child. The icy cold St. John is a foil to Mr. Rochester, who burns too hot.
Bronte bases the novel in realistic emotions that the average reader can strongly identify with, but she is not afraid to introduce aspects of the supernatural or uncanny in reuniting Jane and Rochester. Her narrative almost always holds our interest.
The first device you might want to take note of that the story is written in the first person point of view, which allows the reader to see the events, characters, and setting through Jane's eyes. But there is an unusal aspect to this first person narration. Occasionally, Jane addresses the reader specifically. In fact, one of the most famous lines in literature is, "Reader, I married him," which begins the final chapter of the book. There are not too many authors of fiction who address the reader in this way. John Fowles was one example. The first person point of view gives Jane the ability to control what information the reader receives and when he or she receives the information. For example, the reader does not know that Rochester is married to a "madwoman in the attic" until Jane reveals this.
Another aspect of the novel you should notice is the use of Gothic elements, although Jane Eyre is not generally considered a Gothic novel. The settings are Gothic: castles, wild countryside, and mansions which have seen better days. Also, the character of Rochester has Gothic elements. He is a lone and mysterious figure.
Nature is important in Jane Eyre, to foreshadow and symbolize the events. Wild storms, moonlight, clouds, and trees play important parts in the story.
There are other devices, but this should be enough to get you off to a good start. Good luck to you.