a) What structural feature do the nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum all have in common?
b) Please explain how this common feature affects the way that a cell carries out processes essential for life.
c) Please explain how the structure of the eukaryotic cell allows localization of reactions, protection of reactive molecules, and greater efficiency of cellular processes that a bacterial cell.
Both plant cells and animal cells have endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, golgi apparatus and mitochondria. While first three members are part of the endomembrane system, the last one is not, but involved in energy processing. The structural feature common to all of these organelles is that, they are all bound by layered membranes of high surface area.
The highly folded membrane helps in efficient transport of matter between intracellular granules, within the endomembrane system. Transport vesicles move membranes and substances they enclose between components of the endomembrane system.
Food is converted to energy (ATP) in the mitochondria of cells. The inner membrane of mitochondria is highly folded, with protein molecules that make ATP embedded in it. The folds, called cristae, increase the membrane’s surface area, enhancing the mitochondrion’s ability to produce ATP.
The interrelationship between functions of these organelles can be better understood from the diagram given in the reference link.