What strategies and resources did enslaved Africans use to endure the traumas of capture, the Middle Passage across the Atlantic, and sale in New World European colonies?

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The first African slaves arrived in Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. Over the next approximately 100 years, 7 million more followed, and 2 million perished during their forced journey from their homes to the African coast and through the Middle Passage. In many ways, survival was based on luck. Slaves who worked in the houses of plantation owners fared better than those who worked in the fields.

A massive aspect of slavery was...

(The entire section contains 213 words.)

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