What state of matter has low energy, a fixed volume and strong bonds?  

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t-nez eNotes educator| Certified Educator

All three of these characteristics describe the solid state of matter. Of the three states of matter, solid, liquid and gas, the solid state has the lowest average kinetic energy. Particles in the solid state have only vibrational motion while particles are free to move around in the liquid and gas states.

Solid substances also have a fixed volume, meaning that they aren't compressible. (Liquids also have a fixed volume but don't meet the other criteria.)

The characteristic of having strong bonds requires some clarification:

Ionic solids are held together by strong forces of attraction between oppositely charged particles. These attractions are called ionic bonds. When ionic compounds are heated to high temperatures the ionic bonds are broken and melting occurs.

Molecular solids consist of molecules held together by intermolecular attractions. They melt when enough energy is absorbed to overcome attractions between molecules. The covalent bonds between atoms within a molecule aren't broken during phase changes. Covalent bonds are strong chemical bonds that are present in all three phases of a substance. 

It's more accurate to say that substances in the solid state have strong attractions between particles, unless you're referring specifically to ionic solids.

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