President Eisenhower and his Secretary of State John Foster Dulles were both 'cold warriors'. Both men were staunsh opponents of communism and both believed that the U.S. was compelled to prevent the Soviet Union from expanding their sphere of influence. Having said that, there is evidence that Secretary of State Dulles' foreign policy of 'brinkmanship' was first stated by President Eisenhower in National Security Council 162/2 document. In the document the president states that only with a threat of a 'massive retaliation' with the use of nuclear weapons can discourage the Soviet Union's political agenda. Interestingly, when the document became public, Dulles tried to lighten the language used by the president in an effort to ease the tension and attention it brought to the administration's policies.