A thesis statement is a concise sentence or couple of sentences summarizing the main argument you are making in a paper. Before you develop a "thesis statement," you need a central argument. What sort of argument is appropriate to your paper depends on whether it is for an introductory literature survey, an advanced undergraduate course, or a graduate seminar.
For an introductory survey, the main point of your paper will be to show that you read and understood the story and thus you could make a simple claim to the effect that "Miss Emily" herself represents the Old South and the way it has decayed, as she herself evolves from a beautiful young women to a an eccentric and unattractive older women.
At a more advanced level, you should acquaint yourself with some of the vast body of criticism that has been written about the story and situate yourself within a specific critical school or context. For example, you could take a feminist approach arguing that Miss Emily is a subversive heroine...
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