Ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus are all organelles. They are also all involved in the making, packaging, and shipping of proteins.
Ribosomes help in the production of proteins during translation. During translation, mRNA slides through ribosomes. Ribosomes help anticodons on tRNA and codons on mRNA match so peptide bonds can be formed between the amino acids located on top of adjacent tRNA.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) may be either rough or smooth. Ribosomes are found attached to rough ER but not on smooth ER. Rough ER are commonly found adjacent to the nuclear envelope, while smooth ER are often located throughout the cytoplasm.
Either type of ER is composed of a series of membranes that are found throughout the cell. The double membranes that make ER form sacs called cisternae. Proteins are collected inside the hollow space of the cisternae called the lumen. When the lumen become full of proteins, they pinch off and form a transition vesicle that is then sent to the Golgi apparatus.
The Golgi apparatus “absorbs” transition vesicles sent by the ER. Here, the proteins are processed. Then, the Golgi apparatus forms a secretory vesicle around the proteins. The secretory vesicle is sent into the cytoplasm, moves toward the cell membrane, and releases the proteins out of the cell so they can be used where needed.