In certain ways, the First and Second Industrial Revolutions can be seen on a continuum rather than as radically different phenomena. Although the first was more dramatic in the way it shaped demographic and socioeconomic factors, many trends were common to both.
The first common trend was urbanization. In both cases, changing technology favored the growth of mass production, requiring workers and manufacturing to cluster in cities rather than being dispersed in the countryside. In both cases, large companies were often surrounded by "company towns" with a single dominant employer.
Another common trend was that both offered unskilled and semi-skilled workers a path into the middle class. Factory jobs paid much more than agriculture work. Increased efficiency in agricultural production in both periods meant that fewer workers in food production were required as a percentage of the population, something that also contributed to rural depopulation.
Both revolutions were grounded economically in the use of capital investment. Increasing productivity due to technological advances led to the opportunity for capitalists to become very wealthy.
Infrastructure improvement, especially in communications and transportation, facilitated the economic growth of both periods, with governments often focused on encouraging the infrastructure and legal frameworks to support business growth. Improved power technologies were important in both periods.
Both periods were ones of significant social upheaval as changing economic landscapes led to shifts in power. In both periods, governments became more democratic.