What did the First and Second Industrial Revolutions have in common?
The First Industrial Revolution and the Second Industrial Revolution had some things in common. Both the First Industrial Revolution and the Second Industrial Revolution involved the use of machines instead of hand tools. Machines were used to make various products in each instance.
Another similarity between the First Industrial Revolution and the Second Industrial Revolution was the impact they had on workers. Workers no longer worked in small, worker-friendly environments. They worked in large, impersonal factories. Working conditions were poor in the factories. Workers had low pay, long hours, and unsafe working conditions. It was harder for workers to improve their situation individually, which gave rise to the formation of labor unions. The labor unions tried to help workers collectively improve the working conditions in the factories.
Both the First industrial Revolution and the Second Industrial Revolution led to new products being produced. Some of these products helped farmers do their work quicker and easier. Some of the new products made it easier and quicker to do household chores. These products helped the economy grow, and they gave people more free time.
There are similarities between the First Industrial Revolution and the Second Industrial Revolution.
Both the First and Second Industrial Revolutions saw the use of machine tools. In the First Industrial Revolution, hand production was replaced by machines. In the Second Industrial Revolution, widespread use of machines was observed.
In both the First and Second Industrial Revolutions steam power was used to provide energy in the factories and in the development of the machine tools required for the operations.
Technological inventions such as the electric telegraph were used in both the First and Second Industrial Revolutions.
The First and Second Industrial Revolutions saw the use of steamships and locomotives in the transport of both raw materials and finished goods.
Steelmaking processes were developed in both the First and Second Industrial Revolution because of the increasing need of steel products in making of the tools and transport facilities.
The first industrial revolution was largely about creating more effecient methods of production in different industries such as agriculture, manufacturing,transportation, etc. through the development of machinery. These machines were able to create less need for a large scale, costly, work force.
The Second Revolution was tied into the first Industrial Revolution as it was a time of utilizing and refining many of the methods in the first revolution in order to use them in the means of large scale consumer production.
Two revolutions dealing with the same final means, however, doing so in stages. The first revolution created the means with which later generations would labor. Each of these times in history was more deadicated to production effeciency than to well-being of human labor and conditions.
The similarity between the two Industrial Revolutions is that they both involved an increase in the degree to which machines were being used to do tasks that had once been done in other ways. Yes, there were differences in that the earlier Industrial Revolution was more about things capital goods like steam engines while the second was about consumer goods. But, in both cases, the main thing that was going on was an increase in the use of machinery. This is what they have in common and what makes it legitimate to call both of these "Industrial Revolutions."