Most archeologists believe that both agricultural societies and hunting-gathering societies divide labor between the sexes. This means that men and women participate in distinct, specialized labor tasks as an expression of their gendered identity. Sexual division of labor can be observed among extant pastoral and agricultural societies. However, since only a few (small) hunting-gathering societies exist, scholars cannot know for sure how these societies organize and divide their labor. Despite difficulties in the anthropological study of hunting-gathering societies, the general consensus is that these societies organize(d) labor along the lines of gender. This hypothesis is widely accepted among scholars because it is buttressed by a large amount of archeological evidence.
Both agricultural societies and hunting-gathering societies kept careful track of the seasons. Pre-dating written language and formal calanders, hunting-gathering societies oriented themselves to changing seasons by noting the position of stars and constellations. Attuned to changes in weather and sky, nomadic hunting-gathering groups would move to follow hunted game. Agricultural societies likewise worked with the seasons, paying attention to changes in temperature and other natural signs in order to determine the best times to plant, harvest, etc.