Both the Multi-Store Model of Memory (MSM) and the Levels of Processing (LOP) use the information processing approach, and deep processing leads to better retention, whether it moves into the long-term memory of MSM or the semantic level of LOP.
- One study by Tyler, et.al. examined the effects of cognitive effort on memory in which participants were given anagrams to solve. Because the participants were processing for meaning, they remembered better the more difficult anagrams, thus confirming as Craik and Lockhart had suggested; namely, that "elaborateness and distinctiveness" are important to deep processing. This finding is also in line with Atkinson and Shiffrin's model for long-term memory in which greater capacity and duration leads to longer memory.
- Baddeley's study (1966) defines Short Term Memory as being acoustic and Long Term Memory as semantic, thus supporting MSM. It also concurs in part with the study of Hyde and Jenkins (1973) that demonstrated that depth of processing from semantics does influence recall, a conclusion that underpins LOP. Therefore, there are similarities in the acquisition of knowledge in the Long Term Memory of MSM and in the Deep Processing of LOP as they both involve semantics.