This question would best be answered by specific examples, but some generalizations can be made. When a physical action finds “conflict,” it is often encapsulated in the clause “when an irresistible force meets an immovable object.” “Something’s gotta give”. All the laws of physics are enforced all the time. So these conflicts manifest themselves in dynamite explosions that make holes in mountains, or the screeching of drills that dive through hard metals, etc. In societies, the conflict over, for example, land masses, is manifested in war and/or treaties. In literature, there are several kinds of conflicts—wishes vs. circumstances (“I want to be a movie star, but I live in a small town in Nebraska”) which manifest themselves in decision-making passages where the hero compromises or turns to crime for money or is discovered by a traveling movie-maker, etc. Another level of conflict, called the ego battle, is when two characters whose wishes conflict, exert their will on one another, manifested in something as simple as a fist fight or as complex as a business competition. Conflicts in social values (for example, individual wants vs. “the law”) manifest in chastisements, jail terms, Scarlet Letters, or revolution. Conflicts between Nature and Man manifest themselves in storms, starvation, whales, or such natural struggles. But, for literature, the most difficult conflict to “evidence” is the internal conflict—a character wants to show respect to a professor by taking off his cap, but his religion prohibits his having a bare head in public. Or a character loves a woman but doesn’t want to risk telling her and ruining their friendship. While there are outward sign of these conflicts, the best device for “evidence” is the omniscient narrator, a story-telling voice that can read and express the inner thoughts of the characters—“John wondered if he would lose her friendship if he declared his love.” The girl can be thinking “Oh, if only he knew…” The characters can be walking through the park or eating icecream cones, with no outward manifestation of their conflict but an omniscient narrator to express the inner conflict. So, there are many devices available to the author to "evidence" conflict.