The principal conflict between long-term and short-term financial objectives for any business is whether to realize profits or reinvest them to build the business. In the case of a small business, this may be a simple decision of how much the owner decides to pay themself. An emphasis on short-term profit would lead to the owner taking the maximum possible income each year, whereas a long-term perspective would motivate them to build the business using as much of that money as possible.
In a larger, publicly-traded company, the decision is similar, though the dividends the company pays to shareholders, rather that the board's remuneration, will usually be the most important short-term factor. It is well-known that some large and ultimately successful companies, particularly in the digital economy, do not make any profits for many years, since they are concentrating entirely on long-term financial objectives. This is famously true of Amazon, which was founded in 1994 and publicly traded in 1997 but made no profits at all until 2001. Even then, Amazon did not pay dividends, but invested the money in building the business as quickly as possible and gaining market share. Examples like Amazon make it easier for executives to argue for this type of long-term strategy, but it is still unusual to find investors who are willing to wait for years before realizing any profits.