What are some poetic devices in the poem "Then and Now" by Oodgeroo Noonuccal (formerly Kath Walker)?
In the second grouping of lines, the didgeridoo, a large wooden instrument used by Australian aborigines, is personified as "Calling us to dance and play." Personification is the attribution of human qualities to something that is not human. An instrument cannot willfully call anyone to do anything, but the person playing the instrument might be using its sound in order to call someone to so something. Therefore, this line constitutes a personification of the didgeridoo.
In the final grouping of lines, the speaker uses refrain, the repetition of words or phrases, in order to draw more attention to and reinforce how much she has lost in the change from aboriginal culture to the dominant, white culture. She says,
No more woomera, no more boomerang,
No more playabout, no more the old ways.
She repeats the words "no more" four times in these two lines rather than use a conjunction like "or" in order to allow her losses to seem to build, to snowball. In addition, the lack of a conjunction like...
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