There are three main themes in Salinger's novel The Catcher in the Rye. The themes from the novel are (according to eNotes- see link below:
1. Hatred of Phonies
2. Suspicion of Authority Figures
3. Disregard for Conventional Social Roles
4. Romanticising Nature and Longing for Innocence
5. Alienating and Loneliness
Based upon theis list one can find many poems which speak to the themes from the novel.
IN the case of hating phonies, the poem "Phony People" by Connie Webb depicts the same feelings that Holden discloses in the novel.
When it comes to suspension of authority figures, the poem "You Will Be Hearing From Us Shortly" by U. A. Fanthorpe (British Poet) acknowledges a person's animosity when it comes to those in power.
Any of the poems by Bell Hooks can be looked at as containing the theme of disregard for conventional social roles. Hooks' poems typically speak out against oppression and domination. One collection of her to examine would be her poetry book And There We Wept.
An easy example of poems which match the theme of Romanticising Nature can be found in the following poems of the Romantic period:
"On the Beach at Night"- Walt Whitman
"When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer"- Walt Whitman
"NAture the Gentelest Mother"- Emily Dickinson
"Bring Me the Sunset in a Cup"- Emily Dickinson
Longing for innocence is another theme popular in poetry. The following poems have the theme of longing for innocence embedded in them:
"Child of Innocence"- Heather Stevens
"The Poetry of Innocence"- See link for author- formal name not given.
Poems about alienation and loneliness are another popular topic among poets. Here is a listing of poems I found with those themes:
"Dirge"- Ralph Waldo Emmerson
"The Tavern"- Willa Cather
I hope that these examples help you with finding what you need.